Bee Varieties Assortment
Of 2009 so you’re able to 2018, 192 bee variety (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) was caught within the Calanques National Park thru each other online and you can bowl pitfall collections. It belonged so you can half dozen group and you can 38 genera. Megachilidae is actually more kinds-steeped relatives, accompanied by Apidae and you can Halictidae, with 53, 44, and 43 variety, correspondingly. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 is actually the richest genus, with 33 kinds, while eight genera had been depicted by one varieties (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Table 1 [on the internet merely] ). Utilizing the jackknife step one and you will dos indexes, the full bee kinds richness is estimated to get anywhere between ± nine.89 and you can ± . The observed richness ergo illustrated 71.step three to help you 79.6% of the estimated bee richness ( Dining table 2). The brand new Chao1 strategy projected the latest observed richness to get 76.8% of potential limitation fullness ( Desk dos). By far the most abundant species try Apis mellifera L. (276 someone), followed closely by Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and 168 somebody, respectively), and you can Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 some one). Eventually, 50 varieties (26%) had been depicted by only one private (singletons).
Environmental Attributes regarding Bees
Concerning your ecological traits of nesting needs, i recognized 59 single bee variety nesting a lot more than crushed, ninety-five unmarried bee types nesting underground and you may 23 cleptoparasitic variety, comparable to 30.eight, 47.9, and you can several.0% of your own full bee types richness, correspondingly. I thought four societal kinds (bumble bees and you may honey bees-dos.1%). Finally, brand new nesting preferences out of fourteen types are still unfamiliar (seven.3%- Supp Table step 1 [on the internet elite singles login simply] ). About your floral diet from bee variety, we discovered that 105 variety (54.7%) foraged for the many plant types (we.age., generalist variety, polylectic) and you can 51 species (twenty-six.5%) foraged on one bush members of the family otherwise one to/partners bush variety (i.e., professional types, oligolectic). With the leftover 36 bee variety (18.8%), the fresh new flowery eating plan wasn’t identified (e.g., to possess cleptoparasitic species). Yet not, really generalist types demonstrated an inclination for one or several bush family ( Supp Desk step 1 [online simply] ). Towards forty-two singletons, 14 bee varieties (28%) were specialist, and you may nine bee varieties (18%) was basically cleptoparasitic ( Supp Table step one [online merely] ).
An IUCN condition is available for 178 variety (leaving out the new types buildings and you will unidentified species). One of those, 47 varieties have been classified since the analysis deficient (DD-twenty six.4%), 124 varieties have been minimum alarmed (LC-69.6%), half dozen types have been near endangered (NT-3.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and you will L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), and something species are thought endangered (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Table step one [on the web merely] ). Around three oligolectic species was indeed among the many 7 threatened bee variety. A great. ovatula and you will C. albomaculatus was specialists towards Fabaceae, D. argentata is a specialist for the Caprifoliaceae.
From 2009 so you’re able to 2018, 38 species of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) had been caught inside Calanques Federal Playground. They belonged so you’re able to 24 genera ( Supp Table dos [on line only] ). More numerous genera was Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 some one), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (fourteen somebody), and you may Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville within the Latreille, 1828 (thirteen individuals), whereas 20 varieties (53%) had been represented of the one personal ( Supp Desk dos [on line simply] ). The fresh bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) was indeed depicted by the 20 types, also four singletons (25%) ( Supp Table 3 [on the internet merely] ). The fresh estimation of total varieties richness out-of hover flies and you may bee flies is anywhere between 83 and you can 97 kinds using the jackknife step 1 and you may dos spiders, respectively. Therefore, this new seen richness represented 59.8–69.9% of the projected hover travel and you may bee travel fullness ( Dining table 2).