Bee Types Range
Away from 2009 to 2018, 192 bee variety (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) have been caught inside Calanques National Playground via both net and you may pan pitfall series. They belonged in order to half a dozen families and 38 genera. Megachilidae is actually probably the most types-steeped nearest and dearest, followed by Apidae and Halictidae, with 53, forty two, and you will 43 types, correspondingly. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 are the newest wealthiest genus, that have 33 variety, whereas 7 genera was in fact depicted by only 1 species (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Dining table step one [on line merely] ). With the jackknife step 1 and 2 indexes, the complete bee varieties richness are estimated are between ± nine.89 and you can ± . New observed richness thus illustrated 71.step three so you can 79.6% of the estimated bee fullness ( Dining table 2). The latest Chao1 strategy projected the latest noticed richness as 76.8% of your own possible maximum fullness ( Desk 2). The most abundant types is actually Apis mellifera L. (276 someone), accompanied by Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and 168 anyone, respectively), and Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 some body). Fundamentally, 50 varieties (26%) was basically portrayed by the only 1 individual (singletons).
Environmental Traits from Bees
About your environment attributes from nesting tastes, i recognized 59 solitary bee variety nesting significantly more than ground, ninety-five solitary bee variety nesting underground and you may 23 cleptoparasitic varieties, comparable to 30.eight, 47.9, and you may several.0% of the complete bee variety fullness, correspondingly. I understood five public types (bumble bees and you may honey bees-2.1%). In the end, this new nesting preferences of fourteen varieties remain unfamiliar (seven.3%- Supp Dining table 1 [on the internet simply] ). About your flowery diet plan out of bee kinds, i unearthed that 105 kinds (54.7%) foraged into an array of bush kinds (we.age., generalist types, polylectic) and you can 51 types (26.5%) foraged on a single bush family members otherwise that/couple bush types (we.e., pro kinds, oligolectic). With the left thirty six bee variety (18.8%), this new flowery diet wasn’t understood (elizabeth.grams., for cleptoparasitic variety). Although not, most generalist kinds showed an inclination for 1 or a number of bush household ( Supp Desk step one [online simply] ). To your forty-two singletons, 14 bee types (28%) was basically specialists, and nine bee species (18%) was cleptoparasitic ( Supp Table step 1 [on the internet only] ).
A keen IUCN reputation is readily available for 178 kinds (leaving out the latest varieties complexes and you will unknown varieties). Among those, 47 varieties were categorized given that investigation deficient (DD-26.4%), 124 variety were minimum alarmed (LC-69.6%), half a dozen species was indeed near endangered (NT-step three.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), and something varieties is experienced endangered (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Table step 1 [on line just] ). Three oligolectic species was basically among 7 threatened bee variety. Good. ovatula and you may C. albomaculatus is pros on Fabaceae, D. argentata are a professional on Caprifoliaceae.
Out of 2009 so you can 2018, 38 species of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) was trapped when you look at the Calanques National Park. They belonged to help you 24 genera ( Supp Dining table dos [online merely] ). One particular plentiful genera was Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 anyone), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (14 some one), and you may Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville inside Latreille, 1828 (thirteen somebody), whereas 20 species (53%) was basically represented by the only 1 personal ( Supp Table dos [on line just] ). New bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) had been depicted by the 20 kinds, including five singletons (25%) ( Supp Dining table step three [on the internet simply] ). The new estimation out of overall types fullness out of hover flies and you will bee flies is actually ranging from 83 and 97 types making use of the jackknife 1 and dos indexes, correspondingly. For that reason, brand new observed fullness represented 59.8–69.9% of projected hover fly and you will bee fly fullness ( Table dos).